Monday, December 2, 2019

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Thinking is the capability to manipulate words and images. It requires understanding, recalling, processing information as well as the ability to communicate. According to cognitive psychology, mind is involved in perceptions organization, processing information as well as interpreting experiences. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Thinking, Language, and Intelligence specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, development of concept help one to simplify thing through grouping together the available information of events, ideas, objects, persons among other which have commonalities. As a result this enables priming of other networked information when one concept is activated. When one event comes in mind there is connection of other related event. For example, when one thinks of golf, other related games like tennis prime out. When a problem arises, either through image or words, one tries to figure out possible solut ions and test them out to see how they would work out. Success in solving them enable one’s life to go on but failure makes one to return to selection of solution models for new ideas. The strategies used in solving problems include; trial and error, algorithm (involving solving problem step by step), Heuristic (the mental shortcuts in solving problems) and insight (where a solution click out of mind automatically) (Myers, 2004). Language on the other hand entails a formal system of communication in either written, spoken or in gesture form. Spoken language has distinguished elements, which include; phoneme- which are basic sounds; Morphemes- the smallest unit which have meaning; and phrases- which entails the combined morpheme to bring out clear meaning. The acquisition of language begins out as a simple way and progress to complexity. This begins from birth as the child learns distinguishing sounds in speeches, start producing sound through imitation, sound becomes clear words which the child deduce its meaning. One factor that makes individuals to be able to learn language is the fact that the brain has the capacity to change the neural networks on bases of experiences, for instance exposing a child to a particular language will make its brain to change the neural network and conform to the structure of that language. Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, if the child is exposed to another different language in early age, he is able to learn it better than at older age. For example, at my childhood, my parents were settled on a different tribe location from our own tribal land, I had no trouble speaking and understanding the â€Å"foreign† language. However, we moved to our local home and with no time I had learn clearly our language and gradually forgotten the other (Greenspan Shanker 2004). Intelligence is the ability to learn from ex perience, use the knowledge as well as solve the problems. Intelligence gives one a capability to hold two different ideas in mind at one time and still remain functional. Intelligence is an inheritance aspect and it is based on; speed in reacting to signals, muscular strength, ability to detect tiny differences and size of the head. Intelligence can be achieved on multiple basis where one become good in many areas such as ; academic, games, social situation as well as ability to posses emotional intelligence (by regulating emotions, ability to perceive, understanding and expressing). Intelligence have much influence to brain functioning as more intelligence people have the ability to process information quickly, as well as process perceptual information faster. During problem solving some factor within an individual do interfere with the process. Confirmation bias for instance affect the solving problem process through seeking information to confirm ones ideas. Through confirmatio n bias, the individual involved assumes that the evidence verifies his hypothesis while they may have a positive indicator that is nevertheless false. Fixation contributes to ineffective problem solving as it makes an individual to lack an ability of seeing the problem in a different perspective. As a result one uses a solution that once worked on to a problem that requires another solution to be solved. Overconfidence brings an underestimation of a problem that might be requiring intensive solution strategies which hinders proper approach to that problem. Heuristics on the other hand estimates the likelihood of a problem being easy hence producing quick answers which are often in error form. For example, when sitting for an exam paper well studied, overconfidence makes the student to tackle the question from a different angle from which the examiner intends with no awareness (Greenspan Shanker, 2004). Despite the argument that language unfolds because of child’s imitation , association and reinforcement from the older people, language is an inborn quality. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Thinking, Language, and Intelligence specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A child is able to create its own language through combination of the sound they hear and what they see, with their innate sense of language. This is because as the child grows up, he imitates sounds the he hear without understanding their meaning. However, as it grew up, child associate these sounds by the action accompanying them and from this it is able to make sense of its own sound. In addition if a group of children are raised in an isolated area without presence of adult, the will make their own language from their innate sense of language and be able to communicate. For example, deaf children are able to use their own language in gesture form which agrees with the grammar rule and communicate well with other people. W as their language taught? (Castaneda,1989). According to Bobo Doll video, one’s perception concerning how women respond to sexual behaviors is distorted by viewing of pornography. Men who are exposed to violence pornography are violence towards women. In addition, exposure to aggressive views damages ones self-control ability, thus instilling aggressiveness in ones traits. Watching aggressive programmes on the television may result to aggressive behavior in a child despite that they on the other side teach positive lessons. The more violence child’s programmes in TV are, the more aggressive the child will likely become. This is because viewing violence programmes triggers violence behavior in a child. On the other hand, constrictive video games contribute to stimulation and arousal of positive feelings, behavior, and perceptions with reduction of prosaically behaviors. On the other hand, Myers (2004) quotes that â€Å"project zero bring out the relationship of the de velopment of human beings in arts through enhancing thinking ,learning, and creativity, together with humanistic and scientific disciplines both at individual and institutional levels.† In this project, forms of arts contribute to vital means of learning, with inclusion of other disciplines’ learning models. Integration of intelligence forms into authentic art learning have contributes to reduction of complexity in artistic. Art have in addition been connected to cognitive skills, which boosts powerful imagination, critical thinking and analytical perspective. In addition, this integrated learning enhances problem identification and problem-solving skills. The creative aspect found in the art as well as the cognitive skills involved in critical thinking shows that every juncture of art brings about a developmental progression in an individual (Castaneda, 1989) Reference List Castaneda, H.N. (1989). Thinking, language, and experience. St. Louis: U of Minnesta Press.Adve rtising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Greenspan, S. Shanker, S. (2004). The first idea: how symbols, language, and intelligence evolved from our early primate ancestors to modern humans. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. Myers, D.G. (2004). Exploring psychology. NY: Worth Publishers. This essay on Thinking, Language, and Intelligence was written and submitted by user Jonathan Ortega to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Unemployment in California

Unemployment in California Unemployment in California As a result of the current increase in the unemployment rate in California, this paper will discuss an article by Semuels (2011) on â€Å"California unemployment rate hits 12.1% as employers slash jobs† posted on the Los Angeles Times on September 17, 2011.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Unemployment in California specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction On August this year, California’s employers slashed some jobs resulting to an increase in the unemployment rate by 0.1% to 12.1%; the job loss was due to uncertainty arising from the economy recovery leading to reduction of payrolls by 8,400 (Semuels, 2011). The increase in unemployment rate has raised some signs of worries in the labor market in California, but the situation is turning around since this year alone the California’s jobs increased by 98,500 (Semuels, 2011). The unemployment rate increased due to va rious reasons such as uncertainty arising from the slow growth in the economy, current slide in the stock market and the debt crisis from the European region, which spooked the employers; as a result employment was delayed awaiting the restoration of the market confidence. The unemployment was also triggered by differences in Washington on how to sustain the economy; this was evident as state and local agencies cut positions in order to reduce costs and in the process 3,600 positions were lost by the government in California (Semuels, 2011). In the USA, Nevada has the highest unemployment rate followed by California and the chronic unemployment has affected many families in California because the families’ income is currently less than federal’s poverty level of 16.3%, an increase of 1% compared to year 2010. Therefore, approximately 2.2 million young people in California live in such families where children have a higher chance of not going to college compared to chil dren from richer families. These less fortunate families are likely to have poor health and they may also engage in illegal activities (Semuels, 2011). In order to reduce the unemployment Obama sanctioned work-sharing plan that was implemented in Europe in the attempts to avoid layoffs by distributing the pain amongst the co-workers, and also contentious bridge-to-work plan, which will provide temporary work or training to individuals relying on unemployment benefits thus putting them on a pathway to regular jobs (Semuels, 2011).Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Obama also suggested part of the stimulus bill worth $447,000 million be used as tax credit of $4,000 employers. The Obama’s main objective was to rescue individuals relying on funds from unemployment insurance considering the real economic situations given that about 6 million employees in the US ( approximately 43%) of unemployed individuals have so far survived without work for at least six months (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011; Lee and Puzzanghera, 2011). As a result many employees have been discouraged and have withdrawn from the labor market altogether; if they remain unemployed for a long time this will mean that they will suffer the results of permanent unemployment which would drastically cut their income levels. This is a severe problem in US since it implies that the country will be less productive making it harder for the nation to make payments to Medicare, infrastructures and defense that affects everybody. Therefore, it is completely evident that the huge amount of resources pumped towards alleviating unemployment is a massive waste (Lee and Puzzanghera, 2011). In conclusion, the US must spend money in capital investments so as to create more jobs for its people thus reducing the rate of unemployment and hence increasing productivity which will eventually incr ease services and goods available for consumption thereby enabling investments and exports. References Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Regional and State employment and unemployment – August 2011. Retrieved from Lee, D. and Puzzanghera, J. (2011, September 9). Obama suggests changing unemployment system. Los Angeles Times, p.1. Retrieved from Semuels, A. (2011, September 17). California unemployment rate hits 12.1% as employers slash jobs. Los Angeles Times, p.1. Retrieved from We will write a custom essay sample on Unemployment in California specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Ancient History of Abortion and When it Began

The Ancient History of Abortion and When it Began Abortion is often presented as if it were new, cutting-edge, scientifica product of the modern erawhen it is, in fact, as old as recorded history. Earliest Known Description of Abortion The earliest known description of abortion comes from the Ebers Papyrus (ca. 1550 BCE), an ancient Egyptian medical text drawn, ostensibly, from records dating as far back as the third millennium BCE. The Ebers Papyrus suggests that an abortion can be induced with the use of a plant-fiber tampon coated with a compound that included honey and crushed dates. Later herbal abortifacients included the long-extinct silphium, the most prized medicinal plant of the ancient world, and pennyroyal, which is still sometimes used to induce abortions (but not safely, as it is highly toxic). In Aristophanes Lysistrata, Calonice refers to a young woman as well-cropped, and trimmed, and spruced with pennyroyal.Abortion is never explicitly mentioned in the Bible, but we know that the ancient Egyptians, Persians, and Romans, among others, would have practiced it during their respective eras. The absence of any discussion of abortion in the Bible is conspicuous, and later authorities attempted to close the gap. The Babylonian Talmud (Niddah 23a) suggests a Jewish response, by a Rabbi Meir, that would have been consistent with contemporaneous secular sources permitting abortion during early pregnancy: [A woman] can only abort something in the shape of a stone, and that can only be described as a lump. Chapter two of an early Christian text prohibits all abortion  but does so only within the context of a longer passage that also condemns theft, covetousness, perjury, hypocrisy, and pride. Abortion is never mentioned in the Quran, and later Muslim scholars hold a range of views regarding the morality of the practicesome holding that it is always unacceptable, others holding that it is acceptable up to the 16th week of pregnancy. Earliest Legal Ban on Abortion The earliest legal ban on abortion dates from the 11th-century BCE Code of Assura  and imposes the death penalty on married women who procure abortions without the permission of their husbands. We know that some regions of ancient Greece also had some sort of ban on abortion, because there are fragments of speeches from the ancient Greek lawyer-orator Lysias (445-380 BCE) in which he defends a woman accused of having an abortion. But, much like the Code of Assura, it may have only applied in cases where the husband had not granted permission for the pregnancy to be terminated. The Hippocratic Oath forbade physicians from inducing elective abortions (requiring that physicians vow not give to a woman a pessary to produce abortion), but Aristotle held that abortion was ethical if performed during the first trimester of pregnancy, writing in the Historia Animalium that there is a distinctive change that takes place early in the second trimester: About this period (the ninetieth day) the embryo begins to resolve into distinct parts, it having hitherto consisted of a fleshlike substance without distinction of parts. What is called effluxion is a destruction of the embryo within the first week, while abortion occurs up to the fortieth day; and the greater number of such embryos as perish do so within the space of these forty days. As far as we know, surgical abortion was not common until the end of the 19th century and would have been reckless prior to the invention of the Hegar dilator in 1879, which made dilation-and-curettage (DC) possible. But pharmaceutically-induced abortions, different in function and similar in effect, were extremely common in the ancient world.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Zero Carbon Homes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Zero Carbon Homes - Essay Example Through the use of renewable energy systems, engineers, contractors and architects can easily offset or lessen the emission of carbon. In the process of continuously promoting energy efficiency in buildings and local houses, engineers, contractors and architects will be able to protect the environment from the harmful effects of carbon emission (, 2012). Now-a-days, low carbon technologies such as the use of heat pumps, photovoltaic arrays, bioenergy systems, and thermal insulation are currently available in the market. Despite the different kinds of low carbon technologies, only the use of photovoltaic arrays technology will be highlighted throughout the paper discussion. In response to the development of green building, ways on how photovoltaic arrays technology can be use in the construction of green buildings and houses will be examined and analyzed. After providing a clear description of photovoltaic arrays technology, its value in terms of providing solution to climate change and ways on how to create more photovoltaic arrays technology innovation will be tackled in details. Prior to conclusion, various assessment techniques and regulations such as the Feed-in-Tariff and Photovoltaic arrays technology produces electricity coming from the sun. Often times, photovoltaic arrays are placed on the roofs of buildings and houses. Other than the sloping angle and the location where the photovoltaic cells are placed, the efficiency of this particular renewable energy sources is highly dependent on the size and type of cell used (i.e. facing East or South, sloping angle at 30o, etc.) (Noguchi, 2013). In case of a full sunlight, photovoltaic cells can produce up to 1,250 to 1,300 watts of electricity (Eiffert and Kiss, 2003). As a common knowledge, silicon is a semi-conductor material that is capable of creating

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Purpose of Religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Purpose of Religion - Essay Example It is hard to find out the essence of the religion, but it is rather interesting to make an attempt to interpret its meaning and purpose for people. Further discussion is limited by terms of Abrahamic religions and Dharma religions. But before we start our discussion, it is interesting to discuss the role and purpose of religion as a universal phenomenon. For the majority of people, religion was invented for intimidation of people, their self-organization. Basically, religion is a limiting factor of our lives. Still, an initial intention of religion should not be sought in its purpose to oppress people, because the core issue of religion is enlightenment and steering people onto the right path. Therefore, it is better to consider the purpose of religion from a more humane perspective. Religion facilitates our physical pain and spiritual wanderings; our grief and sorrow are diminished once we appeal for God. Moreover, we often go to church looking for redemption. Our daily blames and faults are facilitated in church or even when we appeal for God inside of us. When we think that God has forgiven our faults us, we feel much better. What is even more interesting is that through redemption we transform our faults and sins in our strengths. Thus, the purpose of religion is to assist us in our lives, to help and save our souls from grief and sorrow. Religion makes our lives better for sure. It is necessary not to look for its essence, but just believe in God and salvation. Abrahamic vs Dharmic religions Still, why do not all people believe in one God? Or maybe we believe in one God, but it has different appearances? The emergence of different religions is the reflection of the na tions’ peculiarities. Every nation wants to believe in the most appropriate spiritual power for them. People look for a spiritual contact between God and an individual in the religion. Thus, it is necessary to take into account individual’s peculiarities before creating the most ideal God for oneself. A split of religion into Abrahamic religions (Christianity, Islam and Judaism) and Dharmic religions (Buddhism, Hindu) is the reflection of historical worldview of Western and Eastern people (Rue, 2005).  Ã‚   These religions are united by faith in one God. For Christians, it is Jesus Christ, for Judaists, Abraham is One God, for Islamists, Muhammad is a prophet who is the messenger of God’s counsel.  Ã‚  There are three different Holy Books, these religions are followed: Bible for Christians, Torah for Judaists and Quran for Islamists. In contrast to Abrahamic religions, Buddhism and modern Hinduism are both post-Vedic religions (Rue, 2005). Gautama Buddha is the central Divine in Hinduism and Buddhism. There are constant arguing between Hindus and Buddhists. The latter underline that during the time of Buddha there was no such thing as Hinduism; the former do not intend to separate Hinduism from Buddhism.  Ã‚  The main intention for Buddhist and Hindus is to find out an internal harmony, to establish inner peaceful relation between a body and a soul. This religions propagate a self-breeding, a self-perfection: "We are the causes of our own suffering"; "Think about your life" etc (Rue 2005, p. 43). As far as we can see, the main emphasis in these religions is made not on God, but on individual’s work for self-perfection. Moreover, a central concept for both Hinduism and Buddhism is â€Å"Karma†. Nothing depends on a man; everything is predetermined. A man should be a peaceful, pacified creature, who is able to follow Divines leading him to enlightenment and bringing him closer to spiritual world of Divines. The main argum ents of Christianity differ from these

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Sales Letter Essay Example for Free

Sales Letter Essay The Kutztown Community Parks and Recreation Program and I would like to inform you, and your coworkers, of our wonderful summer programs for children. Our camps are a great way for children to interact with others and have a fun time doing it. Instead of your child sitting at home all day playing video games and being bored out of their minds, send them to our camps for a great summer filled with activity. Camps are held from June 1 through August 15. During this time, your child will be entertained with some wonderful opportunities. During the day, children can take their pick between activities such as arts and crafts, sport instruction, structured recreation, supervised free time, and swimming pool usage. Your child will also be provided with two snack times and lunch for a small fee. On the dates 6-5 and 7-11 the camps will be going on field trips to Hershey Park and the Philadelphia Zoo. Transportation is provided for both of these trips. With summer just around the corner, my company and I encourage you to sign your children up for our summer programs. The camps have been very successful in the past. With seven parks, two community pools, sports, arts and crafts, field trips, and a wonderful staff, there is no doubt that your child’s summer will be filled with fun and excitement. Thank you for your time and I will be contacting you in the near future to follow up. If you have any questions before that time please feel free to contact me at [emailprotected] com. Sincerely, JJ Lloyd Activity Director.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Huck Finn And Racism Essay -- essays research papers

In the book, Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, the main character Huck, is able to look past conformist and the effects of his environment. Huck was born into a society that was supposed to hate black people. Huck was able to see good in a ‘nigger’ , and further a healthy relationship with his slave, Jim. Huck is a very strong and smart person, although he isn’t learned, and can act ignorant from time to time. Mark Twain, many times makes Huck look like a non-admirable person, when Twain does this it degrades him and Huck. Twain did this because he was afraid of the social critics in his day. Huck was a good person despite what the ending of the book may have appeared him to be.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Huck is a walking contradiction to the belief of environmentalism. The definition for an environmentalist taken from Oxford states: “A person who considers that environment has the primary influence on the development if a person or group,';. Huck was taught that blacks were lower then whites, and should not be treated as equals, so according to this belief he should have hated blacks, but he didn’t. Huck was too smart and open minded for the belief of white supremacy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Huck has had positive interactions with blacks, and has taken a liking to the slave Jim, who he helped to free, to go with him on his wild adventure. Huck never had very much schooling. This is one of the reasons he is so smar...